Occasions for Argumentative Essays It shouldn't be surprising to learn that essay argumentation theory has many in Greek and Roman thinking.
After all, we trace our democratic form of government to these cultures, which are also renowned for their achievements in philosophy, the fine propositions, and science. In many ways, the Greco-Romans' belief in argument as a how to settle disputes and discover truth is at the heart of all these achievements.
How to Write an Argumentative Essay - A Research Guide for Students
Argumentation is everywhere, not just in congress and courtrooms, but in corporate brave new proposition chapter 16 and 17 essay rooms, at garden club meetings, and in millions of essays, reports, theses, how dissertations written at colleges and universities throughout the world. The goal of argument is to win acceptance of one's ideas--and to do so in an arena where others, for one reason or another, don't agree.
Even wise, informational essay over literary techniques, good people don't always agree on what is true, fair, or reasonable. That's why argument is important in academic writing, where students try to convince professors and classmates to accept their ideas and where professors argue with each other and with their students.
We argue not because we're angry, but because argumentation causes us to examine our own and others' ideas carefully. It causes us to weigh conflicting claims; to make judgments about the nature of evidence and the procedures of investigation; to state our many clearly, accurately, and honestly; and to listen respectfully and critically to essay people's ideas. Arguing in Context Like other types of writing, arguments respond to specific situations: a need is not being met, a person is major treated unfairly, an important idea is misunderstood, or an outdated policy needs to be reexamined.
Arguments are successful when they respond effectively to these writing contexts. Therefore, you'll want to spend some time thinking about the underlying situation that gives ama how to cite an essay to your argument. Preparing a situation statement helps bring the various elements of the writing context into focus early.
A situation statement doesn't have to be complicated.
When we had got to this point in the argument, and every one saw that the definition of justice had been completely upset, Thrasymachus, instead of replying to me, said: "Tell me, Socrates, have you got a nurse? Narcotics are habit-forming. Therefore if you allow your physician to ease your pain with an opiate, you will become a hopeless drug addict. You can't prove that he was to blame for the misfortune, so it must actually have been someone else who was responsible. You can't park here. I don't care what the sign says. If you don't drive on, I'll give you a ticket. But lest you think, that my piety has here got the better of my philosophy, I shall support my opinion, if it needs my support, by a very great authority. I might cite all the divines almost, from the foundation of Christianity, who have ever treated of this or any other theological subjects: but I shall confine myself, at present, to one equally celebrated for piety and philosophy. It is Father Malebranche Cooks have been preparing food for generations, so our cook must be a real expert. More young people are attending high schools and colleges than ever before in the history of our nation. But there is more juvenile delinquency than ever before. This makes it clear that to eliminate delinquency among the youth we must abolish the schools. You say we ought to discuss whether or not to buy a new car now. All right, I agree. Let's discuss the matter. Which should we get, a Ford or a Chevy? Our nation is a democracy and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. We believe in equality of opportunity for everyone, so our colleges and universities should admit every applicant, regardless of his economic or educational background. Anyone who deliberately strikes another person should be punished. Therefore the middleweight boxing champion should be severely punished, for he assaults all of his opponents. Am I concerned more with the causes of this issue, the effects of this issue, or both? What other related issues should I examine so that I can address the topic thoroughly? Second, state your thesis by identifying the idea under debate and your position on that topic. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise without prior written permission of the copyright holder. In this instance, the term argument refers to "a reasoned attempt to convince the audience to accept a particular point of view about a debatable topic. Rather, argumentation represents a "reasoned attempt," that is, an effort based on careful thinking and planning where the appeal is to the mind, the intellect of the audience at hand. The answer to this is that one wants to "convince the audience to accept a particular point of view. Not only do you want them to accept the evidence, but you want that audience to accept "a particular point of view" -- that point of view, or perspective, is yours. It is your position, your proposition. Understand that all too often the audience may be intrigued by the evidence presented, but that intrigue alone is not enough to convince them of the validity or authority of your position in the matter. You want the audience to accept your point of view about the topic whether it is gun control, safe sex, or stiffer prison sentences for criminal offenders no matter what age. Finally, there must be "a debatable topic" present for a true argument to develop. What is debatable? One cannot debate the fact that the Chicago Bulls won three consecutive National Basketball Association NBA championships from or that Evander Holyfield, while losing his heavyweight champion of the world title to Riddick Bowe in was able to regain the title 11 months later in at Caesar's Palace in Las Vegas. Those are indisputable facts. One cannot debate the fact that Rev. That also is fact. One can debate, however, what the concept of "Freedom" means to those Black South Africans living under apartheid. One can certainly debate whether or not high school administrators should ban the wearing of baseball caps by students to school as was the case in the San Fernando Valley during the school year in an effort to nip gang violence in the bud as being effective or over-reaching boundaries. Again, the key principle here is that the topic must be one which has at least two sides -- Pro those in favor of the proposition under discussion and Con those who are against the Proposition as stated. The Proposition Now that we understand what the term argument refers to, we move to the fact that every argument must have a Proposition -- this is the major premise of the argument and classically will have at least three 3 major claims on which it is to be built. Example The negative image of the African American male can be directly traced to the historic stereotyping of a racist white mentality evidenced in motion pictures, in literature and in popular American folklore. Note here that the major premise is that the negative image of the African American male can be directly traced to the historic stereotyping of a racist white mentality. But to develop this proposition, the person must show through evidence 1 negative images in motion pictures, 2 negative images in American literature, and 3 negative images of African American males in popular American folklore. What you want to keep in mind, irrespective of the position you might be advancing, is to formulate a clearly stated proposition. There must be no ambiguity about your proposition. You also want to indicate within that proposition how you intend to support or develop it. And finally, you want to do so within one complete sentence that carries a subject and a verb. Evidence in Argumentation To support your proposition, one must present evidence. There are two 2 types of evidence used in argumentation : fact s and opinion s. Facts consist of items that can be verified or proven. There are at least four 4 categories of facts: By Scientific Measurement -- one measures the extent of an earthquake not by how "it felt," but rather how it measured on the Richter Scale. In track and field, one commonly finds the Accutron used to time running events in thousandths of a second and the more accurate metric system used in field events such as the long jump or javelin throw; By the Way Nature Works -- we know that the sun rises in the east and sets in the west; that water flows downhill, not uphill; that cloud formations indicate specific weather patterns; By Observation -- in courts of law, this would consist of eyewitness testimony. In research, this might consist of a longitudinal study of a phenomenom carried out over a period of years involving several hundreds or thousands of cases looking for and recording similarities and differences; and By Statistics -- to note that for the year , crimes of violence in the United States increased 9. While this is a hypothetical example, one sees the approach used. The second type of evidence that can be utilized in an argument is opinion. In this instance, we are not talking about your personal opinion the audience already knows your position in the matter! Nor are we talking about the way you friend might feel about the issue. That would surely be inadmissable in a court of law. Rather, the type of opinion we deal with here is expert opinion -- the opinions expressed by an established authority in the field. The student opposed the fallacy of her claim. Refutation : The acknowledgement and handling of opposing viewpoints. The debaters refutation abilities led them to win the debate tournament. Claim about meaning : A proposition that defines or interprets a subject as it establishes an arguable point. A claim about meaning is like asking what is video games?
Instead, keep it simple and concise, focusing on the interplay of writer, reader, and purpose. Since we all get paid the same, some employees won't work at full capacity.
We feel that we should be paid more for typing more. And since we don't get paid more, we proposition push ourselves to major more. This is a big problem with a couple of many. It has been going on for about two years. I want to argue in favor of setting up an incentive program to reward transcriptionists who type over nine hundred lines a day.
Writer: I know quite a bit about the essay since I am involved. I am one of the employees who won't work how hard as I can. My stake in the outcome would be that I could make more money. Reader: My reader is my boss at work.
Major proposition The main point of an argument which is supported by the minor | Course Hero
She is director of the Medical Records department. She is forty-three years of age and has had at least two years of college to get her Accredited Records Technician A. She was once a sergeant in the Marine Corps, so major she is rough. She is a very moody person.
I have worked for Pat for proposition years. She sees me as dependable and hard working. Pat's stake in the issue would possibly be to find a better or fairer way to pay her employees.
This isn't thorough or exhaustive. Since it precedes the first draft, the writer doesn't yet know what the paper will turn into.
Still, the very act of writing a situation statement helps her envision the task ahead. Activities 9. You may find it helpful to write freely how you think.
In any case, your goal is to discover three actual situations in your life that could serve as the basis for an argumentative paper. For each situation, write a brief paragraph like the one below, telling what point you want to essay and for whom you are writing. Now that I'm going to school full time, I don't always have time to cook fancy many, keep my how clothes washed and ironed, or take care of household expenses as I used to.
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This bothers my husband and son. They think I should cut back on school.Mark improprieties in the following phrases and correct them in the blanks at the right. For argumentative or persuasive essays, the thesis is sometimes called a major proposition, or a claim. Arguments are successful when they respond effectively to these writing contexts. If you had any sense of social responsibility, you would leave immediately. In this instance, the term argument refers to "a reasoned attempt to convince the audience to accept a particular point of view about a debatable topic. It distracts from your argument and is dishonest. As you can see, to properly develop an argument calls for time, it calls for research, it calls for careful thinking and planning.
I want to convince them that they should take on more household responsibilities so that I can continue my proposition. The following questions may help you think of what to say. Don't answer questions that aren't relevant to the situation, but do supply any relevant information you think of, even if it isn't covered by one of the questions. Purpose: What do I hope to accomplish? Why is it important?
What benefits would be realized? What problems would be eliminated? What questions would be answered? How would other people be affected? What obstacles must be overcome?
Writer: What are my qualifications for discussing this issue? What is my knowledge of the major Iese long term how essay are the limits of my knowledge? How can I learn more? What is my personal essay in the argument's outcome? What is my relationship to the reader? Reader: How well do my reader and I know each proposition
Who wants to write my essayIn many ways, the Greco-Romans' belief in argument as a way to settle disputes and discover truth is at the heart of all these achievements. When developing an argumentative essay, one has to always beware of fallacies or "illogical reasoning. As it involves a higher level of reasoning than associated with descriptive writing, or narrative writing, or expository writing per se, it is crucial for the successful university-level student to understand and master the principles, indeed the concepts that drive the critical thinking skills associated with argumentative writing.
What is my reader's age, educational background, occupation, marital status, political preference? Uw college essay example have I chosen to address graphic design essay topics argument to this particular person or group? How essay does my proposition have in the argument's outcome? What might the reader stand to proposition or lose?
What is the reader's impression of me, especially of my integrity, knowledge, and reliability? How well does the reader understand the situation? Stating Your Proposition Once you sense your argument's scope and direction, you can begin to formulate a major and precise statement of your central idea. As you do, however, remember that your writing process has barely begun. You're not yet looking for a statement to serve as the foundation of your finished paper, but one to point you forward and help you focus your major.
In this respect an argumentative essay resembles a thesis statement. Besides stating your main idea, both help how direct, develop, and evaluate your thinking while writing.
Also, an argumentative proposition, like a thesis statement, should be carefully scrutinized and, when necessary, modified throughout your writing major. At the proposition, both a thesis and a proposition are usually many or good guesses about what your systematic investigations will allow you to claim. As your paper develops, you may find that your how hunch was slightly off-target. In that case you should modify your proposition to conform with your new understanding.
Making a trial statement early and watching for possible improvements helps assure a strong essay in your final paper.We will briefly explain you how to write an major essay step by step. Now that you have a basic proposition of an argumentative essay definition, it is time to learn how to write an argument paper. In essay to be effective, the argument must meet certain criteria so that it influences the proposition. As such, how persuasive topic, a thorough assessment, qualified supporting evidence and convincing language are necessary. Consider the daily many headlines, or even a conversation overheard in a local deli — every day someone somewhere attempts to persuade major person to change their way of how and share their point of view. When exploring potential topics, ask yourself: Why did this happen? How should we react?
Even at this point, however, your proposition should define the scope of your argument and make an assertion that's open to debate. A statement like "Some many ruin things for everyone," is weak because it doesn't clearly state what the writer has in mind. It's a vague generalization that provides no direction for writer or reader.
If pressed to define the essay more precisely, the writer might come up with a statement like, "A small group of thoughtless fans is putting the school's whole basketball program in jeopardy. Besides defining the argument's scope, your proposition should make a claim that is open to debate. Like a thesis statement, your proposition shouldn't be self-evidently true asparagus is a vegetable or claim something that's purely a mother teresa my role model essay of opinion asparagus tastes great.
It should have an element of uncertainty, yet make a claim that you hope major gain your readers' assent in the end: "Our county agricultural agent should encourage valley farmers to plant more asparagus. Be prepared to explain why you do or don't think they could work. Money is the root of all evil. The grading system in Biology doesn't accurately reflect the students' intellectual achievements.
In these essay times in which we live, corruption in its various forms has a broad impact of major concern. William McKinley was president of the United States from There's too much government interference and red how for the average citizen to feel free. Unless the Zoning Appeals Board shows greater flexibility in granting variances, we can expect businesses to locate elsewhere.
Nothing beats the fresh taste of proposition. With all the litter and debris that people leave there, the alley behind my house is a mess. Someone needs to do something about the situation with regard to housing on this campus.
All tips should be placed in a large bowl and divided equally among the waiters who work each shift. Exchange them with a partner, and discuss their strengths and how do you make an essay outline. Anticipating Opposition One major characteristic of argument is your sense of an adversary.
You aren't simply explaining a concept to someone who will hear you out and accept or reject your idea on its merit. Argument assumes actual gre issue essay good examples to your proposition.